"Raskol" meaning as much as "schism", it refers to Reforms in Russian Orthodoxy that were put in force around 1653-1666. Henceforth those who hung on to the "old Belief" were called Raskolniki (plural). Raskolniki males all had large beards which was in iconic imitation of Christ and beheld it a sin to trim them. As one way to pester Raskolniki, Peter Romanov, "the Great" levelled a special tax for Raskolniki, to the effect that they had to pay for their beards.  

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